分类目录归档:nginx

debian 下安装 nginx + uWSGI

编译安装 nginx
sudo aptitude install gcc g++ libpcre3-dev libssl-dev

wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-0.8.54.tar.gz
tar xzvf nginx-0.8.54.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.54/
./configure \
–prefix=/home/gamexg/web \
–sbin-path=/home/gamexg/web/sbin/nginx \
–conf-path=/home/gamexg/web/etc/nginx/nginx.conf \
–error-log-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/log/nginx/error.log \
–pid-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/run/nginx/nginx.pid \
–lock-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/lock/nginx.lock \
–user=nginx \
–group=nginx \
–with-http_gzip_static_module \
–http-log-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/log/nginx/access.log \
–http-client-body-temp-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/tmp/nginx/client/ \
–http-proxy-temp-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/tmp/nginx/proxy/ \
–http-fastcgi-temp-path=/home/gamexg/web/var/tmp/nginx/fcgi/

make && make install

配置nginx
增加一段记录
location /site1 {
uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
include uwsgi_params;
}

编译安装 uWSGI

sudo aptitude install python-dev libxml2-dev
wget http://projects.unbit.it/downloads/uwsgi-0.9.6.8.tar.gz
tar zxfv uwsgi-0.9.6.8.tar.gz
cd uwsgi-0.9.6.8/
make

配置 django 使用 uWSGI
[email protected]:~/web$ mkdir site
[email protected]:~/web$ cd site
[email protected]:~/web/site$ mkdir site1
[email protected]:~/web/site$ cd site1/
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1$ mkdir www
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1$ mkdir www/static
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1$ django-admin startproject site1
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1$ cd site1/
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1/site1$ ./manage.py startapp app1
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1/site1$ vi myapp.py
[email protected]:~/web/site/site1/site1$ cat myapp.py
import os
os.environ[‘DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE’] = ‘test1.settings’
import django.core.handlers.wsgi
application = django.core.handlers.wsgi.WSGIHandler()

vi uwsgi.xml

127.0.0.1:9000
true /home/gamexg/web/var/uwsgi.pid 3 /home/gamexg/web/site/site1/site1 /home/gamexg/web/site/site1 myapp

启动
/home/gamexg/web/uwsgi-0.9.6.8/uwsgi -x /home/gamexg/web/site/site1/uwsgi.xml

Windows 下 Nginx + PHP5 的安装与配置

Windows 下 Nginx + PHP5 的安装与配置

short_open_tag boolean
决定是否允许使用 PHP 代码开始标志的缩写形式( )。如果要和 XML 结合使用 PHP,可以禁用此选项以便于嵌入使用 。否则还可以通过 PHP 来输出,例如:<?php echo ‘ 。如果禁用了,必须使用 PHP 代码开始标志的完整形式( )。

Note: 本指令也会影响到缩写形式 <?= ,它和 <? echo 等价。使用此缩写需要 short_open_tag 的值为 On。

nginx中文翻译: location 指令

location

syntax: location [=|~|~*|^~] /uri/ { … }
语法:location [=|~|~*|^~] /uri/ { … }

default: no
默认:否

context: server
上下文:server

This directive allows different configurations depending on the URI. It can be configured using both conventional strings and regular expressions. To use regular expressions, you must use the prefix ~* for case insensitive match and ~ for case sensitive match.
这个指令随URL不同而接受不同的结构。你可以配置使用常规字符串和正则表达式。如果使用正则表达式,你必须使用 ~* 前缀选择不区分大小写的匹配或者 ~ 选择区分大小写的匹配。

To determine which location directive matches a particular query, the conventional strings are checked first. Conventional strings match the beginning portion of the query and are case-sensitive – the most specific match will be used (see below on how nginx determines this). Afterwards, regular expressions are checked in the order defined in the configuration file. The first regular expression to match the query will stop the search. If no regular expression matches are found, the result from the convention string search is used.
确定 哪个location 指令匹配一个特定指令,常规字符串第一个测试。常规字符串匹配请求的开始部分并且区分大小写,最明确的匹配将会被使用(查看下文明白 nginx 怎么确定它)。然后正则表达式按照配置文件里的顺序测试。找到第一个比配的正则表达式将停止搜索。如果没有找到匹配的正则表达式,使用常规字符串的结果。

There are two ways to modify this behavior. The first is to use the prefix “=”, which matches an exact query only. If the query matches, then searching stops and the request is handled immediately. For example, if the request “/” occurs frequently, then using “location = /” will expedite the processing of this request.
有两个方法修改这个行为。第一个方法是使用 “=”前缀,将只执行严格匹配。如果这个查询匹配,那么将停止搜索并立即处理这个请求。例子:如果经常发生”/”请求,那么使用 “location = /” 将加速处理这个请求。

The second is to use the prefix ^~. This prefix is used with a conventional string and tells nginx to not check regular expressions if the path provided is a match. For instance, “location ^~ /images/” would halt searching if the query begins with /images/ – all regular expression directives would not be checked.
第二个是使用 ^~ 前缀。如果把这个前缀用于一个常规字符串那么告诉nginx 如果路径匹配那么不测试正则表达式。

Furthermore it is important to know that NGINX does the comparison not URL encoded, so if you have a URL like “/images/%20/test” then use “/images/ /test” to determine the location.
而且它重要在于 NGINX 做比较没有 URL 编码,所以如果你有一个 URL 链接’/images/%20/test’ , 那么使用 “images/ /test” 限定location。

To summarize, the order in which directives are checked is as follows:
总结,指令按下列顺序被接受:

1. Directives with the = prefix that match the query exactly. If found, searching stops.
1. = 前缀的指令严格匹配这个查询。如果找到,停止搜索。
2. All remaining directives with conventional strings, longest match first. If this match used the ^~ prefix, searching stops.
2. 剩下的常规字符串,长的在前。如果这个匹配使用 ^~ 前缀,搜索停止。
3. Regular expressions, in order of definition in the configuration file.
3. 正则表达式,按配置文件里的顺序。
4. If #3 yielded a match, that result is used. Else the match from #2 is used.
4. 如果第三步产生匹配,则使用这个结果。否则使用第二步的匹配结果。

Example:
例子:

location = / {
# matches the query / only.
# 只匹配 / 查询。
[ configuration A ]
}
location / {
# matches any query, since all queries begin with /, but regular
# expressions and any longer conventional blocks will be
# matched first.

# 匹配任何查询,因为所有请求都已 / 开头。但是正则表达式规则和长的块规则将被优先和查询匹配。
[ configuration B ]
}
location ^~ /images/ {
# matches any query beginning with /images/ and halts searching,
# so regular expressions will not be checked.

# 匹配任何已 /images/ 开头的任何查询并且停止搜索。任何正则表达式将不会被测试。
[ configuration C ]
}
location ~* \.(gif|jpg|jpeg)$ {
# matches any request ending in gif, jpg, or jpeg. However, all
# requests to the /images/ directory will be handled by
# Configuration C.

# 匹配任何已 gif、jpg 或 jpeg 结尾的请求。然而所有 /images/ 目录的请求将使用 Configuration C。
[ configuration D ]
}

Example requests:
例子请求:

*

/ -> configuration A
*

/documents/document.html -> configuration B
*

/images/1.gif -> configuration C
*

/documents/1.jpg -> configuration D

Note that you could define these 4 configurations in any order and the results would remain the same.
注意:按任意顺序定义这4个配置结果将仍然一样。

Windows 下以 nginx proxy模式运行 web.py

注意:更好的方式是使用WSGI,但是没有发现windows版本(我也只是开发用,实际建议使用linux+WSGI)。这里使用的是代理模式。(windows 下最好使用fastcgi模式,参考Windows 下以 nginx + fastcgi 运行 Django 或 web.py。这里只是一个功能说明,如果后端使用apache等不支持 fastcgi 等模式时可以使用本方法。)

从 http://www.saddi.com/software/flup/dist/ 下载 flup 并执行 setup.py install 安装。
用压缩软件打开 flup-1.0.1-py2.5.egg 修改 fcgi_base.py 文件,将 isFCGI = True 改成 isFCGI = False 并注释掉以下代码:
[coolcode]
sock = socket.fromfd(FCGI_LISTENSOCK_FILENO, socket.AF_INET,
socket.SOCK_STREAM)
try:
sock.getpeername()
except socket.error, e:
if e[0] == errno.ENOTSOCK:
# Not a socket, assume CGI context.
isFCGI = False
elif e[0] != errno.ENOTCONN:
raise
[/coolcode]
从 http://www.kevinworthington.com/category/computers/nginx/ 下载 nginx Windows 版本的安装程序。
运行并安装。
打开配置文件nginx/conf/nginx.conf 修改为:

[coolcode download=”nginx.conf”]
#user nobody;
worker_processes 1;

#error_log logs/error.log;
#error_log logs/error.log notice;
#error_log logs/error.log info;

#pid logs/nginx.pid;

events {
worker_connections 64;
}

http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;

#log_format main ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] $request ‘
# ‘”$status” $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
# ‘”$http_user_agent” “$http_x_forwarded_for”‘;

#access_log logs/access.log main;

sendfile on;
#tcp_nopush on;

#keepalive_timeout 0;
keepalive_timeout 65;

#gzip on;

server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;

root /cygdrive/D/html;
index index.html index.htm;

charset utf-8;

#access_log logs/host.access.log main;

# static resources
location ~* ^.+\.(html|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|css|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|pdf|ppt|txt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf|js)$
{
expires 30d;
break;
}

location / {
proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8061;
}

#error_page 404 /404.html;

# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
#
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}

# proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
#
#location ~ \.php$ {
# proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1;
#}

# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
#
#location ~ \.php$ {
# root html;
# fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
# fastcgi_index index.php;
# fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
# include fastcgi_params;
#}

# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache’s document root
# concurs with nginx’s one
#
#location ~ /\.ht {
# deny all;
#}
}

# another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
#
#server {
# listen 8000;
# listen somename:8080;
# server_name somename alias another.alias;

# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}

# HTTPS server
#
#server {
# listen 443;
# server_name localhost;

# ssl on;
# ssl_certificate cert.pem;
# ssl_certificate_key cert.key;

# ssl_session_timeout 5m;

# ssl_protocols SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
# ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
# ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}

}
[/coolcode]

现在建立a.py 内容是
[coolcode lang=”python” download=”a.py”]
#!/usr/bin/env python
import web
urls = (
‘/.*’, ‘hello’
)
class hello:
def GET(self):
print ‘aaa’
if __name__ == “__main__”: web.run(urls, globals())
[/coolcode]
然后重启 nginx 并执行 a.py 8061

现在就可以访问了。静态文件由nginx负责,动态内容由a.py负责。

主目录为d:\html,定义是:
root /cygdrive/D/html;

附一个参数列表(发现一般是使用include 包含配置文件fastcgi_params):
fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;
# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;

Windows 下以 nginx + fastcgi 运行 Django 或 web.py

从 http://www.saddi.com/software/flup/dist/ 下载 flup 并执行 setup.py install 安装。

从 http://www.kevinworthington.com/category/computers/nginx/ 下载nginx Windows版本的安装程序。
运行并安装。
打开配置文件 nginx/conf/nginx.conf 修改为:
[coolcode download=”nginx.conf”]
#user nobody;
worker_processes 1;

#error_log logs/error.log;
#error_log logs/error.log notice;
#error_log logs/error.log info;

#pid logs/nginx.pid;

events {
worker_connections 64;
}

http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;

#log_format main ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] $request ‘
# ‘”$status” $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
# ‘”$http_user_agent” “$http_x_forwarded_for”‘;

#access_log logs/access.log main;

sendfile on;
#tcp_nopush on;

#keepalive_timeout 0;
keepalive_timeout 65;

#gzip on;

server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;

root /cygdrive/D/html;
index index.html index.htm;

charset utf-8;

#access_log logs/host.access.log main;

# 静态资源
location ~* ^.+\.(html|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|css|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|pdf|ppt|txt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf|js)$
{
expires 30d;
break;
}

location / {
# 指定 fastcgi 的主机和端口
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8051;
fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;
fastcgi_pass_header Authorization;
fastcgi_intercept_errors off;
}

#error_page 404 /404.html;

# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
#
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}

# proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
#
#location ~ \.php$ {
# proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1;
#}

# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
#
#location ~ \.php$ {
# root html;
# fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
# fastcgi_index index.php;
# fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
# include fastcgi_params;
#}

# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache’s document root
# concurs with nginx’s one
#
#location ~ /\.ht {
# deny all;
#}
}

# another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
#
#server {
# listen 8000;
# listen somename:8080;
# server_name somename alias another.alias;

# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}

# HTTPS server
#
#server {
# listen 443;
# server_name localhost;

# ssl on;
# ssl_certificate cert.pem;
# ssl_certificate_key cert.key;

# ssl_session_timeout 5m;

# ssl_protocols SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
# ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
# ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}

}
[/coolcode]
现在重启启动 nginx 后在Django项目下执
.\manage.py runfcgi method=threaded host=127.0.0.1 port=8051
就可以了。

这里没有设置 media 目录,现在是以扩展名来分辨是不是转发到Django的程序处理。
想要只允许 nginx 处理media 目录只需要将
location ~* ^.+\.(html|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|css|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|pdf|ppt|txt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf|js)$
换成
location ~ ^/media/
就可以了。

主目录为d:\html,定义是:
root /cygdrive/D/html;

如果运行 web.py 的项目
[coolcode lang=”python” download=”a.py”]
#!/usr/bin/env python
import web
urls = (
‘/.*’, ‘hello’
)
class hello:
def GET(self):
print ‘aaa’
if __name__ == “__main__”: web.run(urls, globals())
[/coolcode]
只需要把执行
.\manage.py runfcgi method=threaded host=127.0.0.1 port=8051
换成执行
a.py 8051 fastcgi
就可以了。

附一个参数列表(发现一般是使用include 包含配置文件fastcgi_params):
fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;
# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;